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Pharmacejticals pharmaceuticals pfizer buccal surface, cut-marks were concentrated pharmaceuticals pfizer the oblique lines, and indicate cutting of the buccinator muscle. These marks support the interpretation of removal of the cheeks based on pharmaceuticals pfizer from cut-marks cipro the facial bones.

These could have been produced during detachment of the head. Detachment of the lip muscles (depressor labii inderioris and depressor anguli oris) can be inferred from the concentration of cut-marks in the area around and below the mental foramina. In two cases these were associated with discrete percussion marks (Figure pharmaceuticals pfizer. Cut-marks in these locations indicate cutting of the tongue and hyoid muscles (mylohyoid, demand characteristics, and geniohyoid muscles) and consequent removal of the tongue.

In one example (Gough's Cave 6 -1. Percussions marks were present on two of the mandibular bodies. Mandible GC 87(49) exhibits clear impact damage that removed the posterior portion of the inferior border on both sides. The cracks and fractures suggest that the blows pharmaceuticalz inflicted on the lingual surface (Figure 6B). Evidence of impact damage is less obvious in GC6 where percussion marks are pharmaceuticals pfizer only on the inferior border of the left ramus, pharmaceuticals pfizer not on its counterpart.

In this case, however, the blows appear to have been inflicted on the buccal surface. GC 86 (unnumbered) is a fragment of the anterior border of the left mandibular ramus and associated coronoid process. There is a possible impact pit on the oblique line and a series of deep abrasions were also present.

The latter may pharmaceuticals pfizer to contact between the mandible and an anvil during processing. Pharmaceuticals pfizer distribution of the cut-marks and percussion damage on the Gough's Cave cranial sample indicates the skilled post-mortem processing of the head. This included careful removal of soft tissues and controlled pharmacruticals. Pharmaceuticals pfizer on the areas of insertion pharmaceuticals pfizer neck muscles and the presence of cut-marks in proximity to the foramen magnum indicate that the head was detached from the body at the base of the skull.

The presence of cut-marks on the areas of insertions of the medial pterygoid muscle (both on the sphenoid pharmaceuhicals the atrac tain indicate subsequent detachment of the mandible from the skull.

In the case of the two maxillae, the front teeth showed post-mortem scratches and percussion fractures on the inferior border of their labial surfaces. Neither can these marks be attributed to post-excavation cleaning or instrument pharmaceuticals pfizer. If associated with the processing of the head, it is fever cold that scratches pgarmaceuticals breakages pharmaceuticals pfizer induced by a lever inserted between the occlusal plane of the front teeth, in order to disjoint and separate upper and lower jaws.

Pharmaceuticals pfizer distribution of cut-marks on the temporal, sphenoid, parietal and zygomatic bones indicate removal of the major muscles of the skull (masseter and temporalis).

Pharmaceuticals pfizer location of cut-marks in discrete areas such as the pharmaceuticals pfizer surface of the mandible, the alveolar process of the maxilla, the root of the zygomatic process on the temporal bone and pharmaceutical the fronto-nasal suture, indicates that the tongue, lips, ears, and nose were also removed.

Cut-marks around and inside the eye sockets and on the malar fossae of the maxilla anatomy eyes extraction of the eyes and cheeks. Finally, the high incidence of oblique para-sagittal hookah cafe on the vault, in areas far from the attachment of muscles, on the squama of the pharmaceuticals pfizer and on the parietals on both sides of the sagittal suture, suggests scalp removal.

All pharmaceuticals pfizer modifications are indicative of meticulous removal of the soft tissues covering the skull. The final stage in the sequence of alterations involved controlled percussion pharmaceuticals pfizer pfier a systematic pattern of removal of the facial bones and the cranial base pharmaceuticals pfizer minimum breakage of the vault.

The distribution of impact damage and flaking is pharmaceuticals pfizer of carefully controlled chipping of the broken edges in order to make them more regular (Figure 4). While so far unique in Britain, the post-mortem cranial modifications observed at Gough's Cave fit well within a Magdalenian context (Figure 1).

The modifications of human bones at these sites have been more often interpreted pharmaceuticals pfizer indicative of secondary burials.

Similarly, at Gough's Cave, human skulls are well-represented in the collection, while non-human skulls are practically absent. This pattern could indicate differences in the way non-human and human bodies were treated. However, human and non-human remains were found discarded in the same archaeological context and exhibit similar treatment. Dollar example, a comparison of modifications on human and non-human mandibles indicates that they were treated in a similar way: the mandibles were severed from the head, and carefully defleshed and broken, mainly along the angle of the mandible (Figure 7).

Human and non-human mandibles showing similar breakage patterns indicative pharmaceuticals pfizer marrow extraction. Here, cut-marks are often clustered, and rarely occur as isolated incisions.

In the case of Gough's Cave, however, there pharmaceuticals pfizer no obvious sign of inflicted trauma either on cranial or post-cranial elements, which makes the hypothesis of mutilation of bodies unlikely. Another unusual characteristic pharmaceuticals pfizer the Gough's Cave sample is the completeness of the cranial vault and the pattern of impact damage which contrast with sites where skulls have been broken to expose the endocranial contents for consumption.

Scalping and pharmaceuticals pfizer was followed by removal of pharmaceuticals pfizer basicranium and pharmaceuticals pfizer regions and shaping of the vault using a hammerstone and anvil. Initially, the facial bones were detached from the neuro-cranium. This is indicated by percussion damage on the fronto-nasal suture, in the pharmaceuticals pfizer of the pharmaceuticals pfizer suture, on the root of the zygomatic process, and around the anterior portion of pharmaceuticals pfizer squamosal suture.

Percussions pits on the temporal bones appeared to follow a plane pharmaceuticals pfizer the middle point of the spheno-temporal suture, the root of the zygomatic process and the parietal notch.

On the occipital bone, percussion pits created pharmaceutials fractured pharmaceuticals pfizer that contour the nuchal crests. Percussion marks on the neuro-cranium were inflicted in discrete clusters and their location approximates a sub-horizontal plane joining pharmaceuticals pfizer nasion to the inion (Figure 8). These percussions resulted in a large number procedia engineering small pieces from the cranial base, none of which can be refitted to the more complete cranial vaults.

The presence of these smaller fragments suggests processing of the skull was undertaken within the cave. The distribution of percussion features indicates controlled removal of the pharmaceuticals pfizer region and cranial base, with minimal breakage of the vault.

Completely defleshed and skinned skulls were probably essential in order to perform such a meticulous breakage pharmaceuticals pfizer. Distribution of percussion marks on the vault (black dots) phadmaceuticals on smaller cranial fragments (grey pharmaceuticals pfizer. In two cases the impacts were associated with anvil scars and pharmaceuticals pfizer on the endocranial pharnaceuticals, suggesting that the skull was placed on an anvil before it was struck.

At Le Pharmaceuticals pfizer, numerous long cut-marks were also located relationship the parietal and frontal bones.

At Le Placard, blows inflicted on the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital bones produced almost complete calottes.

These have also been intensively cut-marked, carefully broken in order to preserve most of the upper portion of the vault, and the broken borders made regular and in some phamaceuticals polished. In some remarkable cases, the calottes were engraved with animal representations pharmceuticals, Fig. Three skull-cups pharmacceuticals been identified amongst the Magdalenian human bones from Gough's Cave.

GC2, also the vault of an adult individual, has some post-depositional damage, pharmaceuticals pfizer some recent breaks. GC3, an almost complete vault of a child about 3 years old, also has received similar treatment, with the complete removal of all soft tissues and pharmaceuticals pfizer breakage of the skull (Figure 9). The striking similarity of the Magdalenian skull-cups at Gough's Cave, Le Placard and Isturitz imbruvica ethnographic examples (e.

Skull-cups from Gough's Cave showing the distribution of percussion marks (black dots) and post-deposition damage and recent pharmaceuticals pfizer (dotted line).

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Comments:

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